For the average examiner paper analysis alone does not resolve the question.The age or common origin of the document(s) may be determined through typewriting, printing, handwriting or even ink analysis; however, many times the problem may be quickly solved if a watermark is noted on the documents(s).An associated optimal sampling technique would involve using single grain etching.It is also shown that the only method to fully eliminate the isotope effect is to not use isotopic ratios at all in radioisotopic dating as the physics do not require the use of isotopic ratios for geochronological dating.The current model of radioisotope dating is based on that idea.But that model doesn’t account for differential mass diffusion – the tendency of different atoms to diffuse though a material at different rates.“The rate of diffusion will vary, based on the sample – what type of rock it is, the number of cracks and amount of surface area, and so on,” Hayes says.

These include to a lesser degree the statistical interpretation issues with linear least squares fitting results but more importantly the isotope effect in the individual components of the isochron coefficient ratios.The application to Rb/Sr dating is evaluated and shown to result in expected age overestimates when isotopic ratios are employed to linearize the isochron.A suggested method to test for this effect is argued to require rigorous statistical analysis.Although without the ratios, the data are inherently noisy.Southworth has received numerous calls asking if we can determine when a particular sheet of our paper was made. Dawson wrote the following article explaining first hand how important a date-coded watermark can be.So, researchers “normalize” the data by making a ratio with strontium-86, which is stable – meaning it doesn’t decay over time.

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