Although the adoption of French, Italian, and other Western loanwords began in the early years of the Ottoman Empire, European vocabulary has grown more important in modern times.
Many Eastern languages, notably the literary languages that developed in the former Soviet Union, did so under Russian dominance and partly under bilingual conditions, and in this process they acquired numerous Russian loanwords and loan translations.
From the Eurasian steppes, Turkic-speaking groups penetrated other regions: the Uighur migrated toward eastern Turkistan, the Kipchak toward the Pontic steppes, and the Oghuz mainly southeastward, toward Iran, Anatolia, and so on. From the 13th century on, Turkistan and Tatarstan were extensively Turkicized.
Of the Iranian languages of Central Asia, practically only Tajik survived.
States in which Turkic languages are spoken include Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, northern Cyprus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Greece, Romania, Lithuania, and, because of recent industrial migration, several western European countries. The Karachay and Balkars and Crimean Tatars were deported during World War II; the latter were allowed to resettle in Crimea only after the collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1990s. The languages of the Pechenegs and the Kuman are antecedents of modern ) comprises Uighur and Eastern Turki dialects (Xinjiang, China; Uzbekistan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan).
Eastern Turki oasis dialects are spoken in the Chinese cities of Kashgar, Yarkand, Ho-T’ien (Khotan), A-k’o-su (Aksu), Turfan, and so on; Taranchi in the Ili valley.
The older ones can be broadly determined as Uighur, Oghuz, and Kipchak or as mixtures of elements from these branches.
In subsequent centuries, Turkic underwent further divergence corresponding to its gradual diffusion.
Bolgar Turkic and Common Turkic differ in regular phonetic representations such as ‘age.’ Chuvash and Common Turkic are not mutually intelligible.
Of the Common Turkic languages, Khalaj displays a greater number of archaic features than any other language.
Interaction with the Mongolian language has been especially strong in such areas as southern Siberia.
Turkic and Persian influence on the Turkic dialects of Iran and Afghanistan is still considerable.
Yellow Uighur (spoken in Kansu, China) and Salar (mainly Tsinghai), the latter of Oghuz origin, are small and deviant languages.